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Table. 1.

Table. 1.

Criteria for diagnosing LPLN metastasis in rectal cancer patients treated with nCRT

Study Year Patients Inclusion Diagnostic method Criteria for diagnosing positive lateral lymph node Pathological metastasis among LPLND patients (%)
Watanabe et al. [25] 2002 115 (78 nCRT) T3/4 low rectal cancer (nCRT vs. no nCRT) MRI No definite criteria; surgeon dependent -
Kusters et al. [23] 2017 703 (379 nCRT) <7 cm from AV MRI No definite criteria; surgeon dependent -
Kim et al. [20] 2008 366 T3/4, ≤8 cm from AV MRI SA >5 mm -
Kim et al. [15] 2016 580 T3/4, ≤8 cm from AV MRI SA >5 mm
Nagawa et al. [26] 2001 51 T3/4 low rectal cancer MRI
Akiyoshi et al. [27] 2014 127 T3/4 low rectal cancer MRI Persistent post-nCRT as >7 mm -
Ogura et al. [6] 2019 741 T3/4 low rectal cancer MRI SA ≥7 mm (pre-nCRT), ≥4 mm (post-nCRT) 24.6%
Lim et al. [13] 2013 67 T3/4 or N+, ≤10 cm from AV and suspicious mLPLN MRI ≥5 mm in the largest SA, or a spiculated or indistinct border, or a mottled heterogenic pattern 32/82 excised LNs (40%)
Kim et al. [28] 2020 798 ≤15 cm from AV MRI SA ≥7 mm (pre-nCRT), ≥4 mm (post-nCRT) 33.3%

LPLN, lateral pelvic lymph node; nCRT, neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy; LPLND, LPLN dissection; AV, anal verge; SA, short-axis diameter; mLPLN, metastatic LPLN; LN, lymph node; -, not applicable.

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